Turbo Expo

Turbomachinery Technical Conference & Exposition

Presented by the ASME International Gas Turbine Institute

Lillestrøm (Oslo), Norway

June 11-15, 2018

June 12-14, 2018


Program - Workshops


The following pre-conference workshops will be held on Sunday, June 10. Consider attending one of the workshops and take advantage of the LOW registration fee. Registration is available online.

Physics-Based Modeling of Gas Turbine Secondary Air Systems

8:00am – 5:00pm

In gas turbines used for power generation and aircraft propulsion, the main flow paths of compressors and turbines are responsible for the direct energy conversion. To ensure acceptable life (durability) under creep, LCF, and HCF from operational transients causing high temperatures and their gradients in critical engine components, around 20% of the compressor air flow is used for cooling and sealing. This is analogous to blood, water, and air flow within a human body for its proper functioning. The main thrust of this workshop is to develop a clear understanding of the underlying flow and heat transfer physics and the mathematical modeling of various components of gas turbine secondary air systems (SAS). Besides some key concepts of thermofluids, the workshop will discuss vortex, windage and disk pumping in rotor/stator cavities, centrifugally-driven buoyant convection in compressor rotor cavities, pre-swirler systems, multiple reference frames, hot gas ingestion and rim sealing, and whole engine modeling (WEM) using multisurface forced vortex convection links with windage in a layered approach. Additionally, the workshop will provide a design-friendly overview of rotating compressible flow network methodology along with robust solution techniques, physics-based post-processing of 3-D CFD results, and the generation of entropy map for design optimization. A number of design-relevant examples will also be solved in the workshop.

Note: Prior to the workshop, participants are encouraged to review Chapter 2 (Key Concepts of Thermofluids) and Chapter 5 (Compressible Flow) from the book Fluid Mechanics: An Intermediate Approach (Author: Bijay K. Sultanian) published by Taylor & Francis on July 28, 2015.

Earn 7 Professional Development Hours (PDH's) and receive a certificate of completion!

Key Benefits to Participants

  • Will develop a strong foundation in flow and heat transfer physics of various components of gas turbine secondary air systems
  • Will be more knowledgeable in developing accurate physics-based and solution-robust secondary air flow network models
  • Will be more knowledgeable in detecting input and modeling errors in their flow network models
  • Will correctly interpret results from their models for design applications.
  • Will develop skills to hand-calculate results to perform sanity-checks of predictions by design tools as well as to validate these tools during their development and continuous improvement
  • Will improve participant’s engineering productivity with reduced design cycle time

Who Should Attend

Design and research engineers involved in secondary air systems design, airfoil cooling, rotor heat transfer, whole engine modeling, and active and passive turbine tip clearance control of advanced gas turbines for aircraft propulsion and simple- and combined-cycle power generation, including Oil & Gas and Land & Marine applications.

Workshop Schedule

8:00 – 10:00am Module 1: An Overview of Secondary Air Systems

  • Role of Secondary Air Systems (SAS) modeling in gas turbine design engineering
  • The concept of physic-based modeling
  • Key components of SAS
  • Flow network modeling and robust solution techniques
  • Role of 3-D CFD in SAS modeling
  • Physics-based post-processing of CFD results
  • Entropy map generation and application

10:00 – 10:15am Break

10:15am – 12:00pm Module 2: Special Concepts of Secondary Air Systems – Part I

  • Free vortex
  • Forced vortex
  • Rankine vortex
  • Windage
  • Compressible flow functions
  • Loss coefficient and discharge coefficient for an incompressible flow
  • Loss coefficient and discharge coefficient for a compressible flow

12:00 – 1:00pm Lunch

1:00 – 2:00pm Module 3: Special Concepts of Secondary Air Systems – Part II

  • Euler’s turbomachinery equation
  • Rothalpy
  • Multiple reference frames
  • Pre-Swirler system
  • Rotor disk pumping

2:00 – 3:00pm Module 4: Physics-Based Modeling – Part I

  • Stationary and rotating orifices and channels
  • Rotor-stator and rotor-rotor cavities
  • Windage and swirl distribution
  • Centrifugally-driven buoyant convection in compressor rotor cavity with and without bore flow

3:00 – 3:15pm Break

3:15 – 4:00pm Module 5: Physics-Based Modeling – Part II

  • Hot gas ingestion
  • Turbine rim sealing
  • Coupling with rotor-stator cavity purge flow and windage

4:00 – 5:00pm Module 6: Physics-Based Modeling – Part III

  • Whole engine modeling (WEM)
  • Multisurface forced vortex convection link with windage
  • Junction treatment in the network of convection links
  • Layered flow network modeling methodology
  • Key recommendations on SAS modeling
  • Gas Turbines: Internal Flow Systems Modeling

(Author: Bijay K. Sultanian) to be published by Cambridge University Press in 2018 under Cambridge Aerospace Series)


Dr. Bijay (BJ) K. Sultanian, PhD, PE, MBA, ASME Fellow

Dr. Bijay Sultanian is an international authority in gas turbine heat transfer, secondary air systems, and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Dr. Sultanian is Founder & Managing Member of Takaniki Communications, LLC, a provider of high-impact, web-based, and live technical training programs for corporate engineering teams. Dr. Sultanian is also an Adjunct Professor at the University of Central Florida, where he has been teaching graduate-level courses in Turbomachinery and Fluid Mechanics since 2006. During his 30+ years in the gas turbine industry, Dr. Sultanian has worked in and led technical teams at a number of organizations, including Allison Gas Turbines (now Rolls-Royce), GE Aircraft Engines (now GE Aviation), GE Power Generation (now GE Power & Water), and Siemens Energy (now Siemens Power & Gas). He has developed several physics-based improvements to legacy heat transfer and fluid systems design methods, including new tools to analyze critical high-temperature components with and without rotation.

During 1971-81, Dr. Sultanian made landmark contributions toward the design and development of India’s first liquid rocket engine for a surface-to-air missile (Prithvi) and the first numerical heat transfer model of steel ingots for optimal operations of soaking pits in India’s steel plants.

Dr. Sultanian is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, a registered Professional Engineer in the State of Ohio (1995), a GE-certified Six Sigma Green Belt (1998), and an Emeritus Member of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society (1984). His graduate textbook Fluid Mechanics: An Intermediate Approach has been published by Taylor & Francis on July 28, 2015. For the ASME Turbo Expo 2018, he is the Heat Transfer Committee Point Contact, a role he also had for Turbo Expos 2013, 2016, and 2017.

Dr. Sultanian received his B. Tech. and MS in Mechanical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (1971) and Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (1978), respectively. He received his PhD in Mechanical Engineering from Arizona State University, Tempe (1984) and MBA from the Lally School of Management and Technology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1999).

Design, Operation and Maintenance Considerations for Cogeneration and Combined Cycle Systems

8:00am – 5:00pm

This course is designed to provide a comprehensive understanding of design, operational and maintenance issues experienced by owners/operators/consultants of cogeneration, district heat and cooling and combined cycle systems. In addition to refreshing the basics of these systems and related recent developments, attendees will become familiar with various practical considerations and rules of thumb relating to the key topics listed below on technologies currently used and under development for enhanced performance. Topics also include:

  • Importance of design, performance, operational, and maintenance issues of HRSG systems
  • Emissions related issues, best available emissions control technologies and environmental regulations
  • Operational and maintenance considerations with emphasis on performance enhancement technologies
  • Case studies of actual systems and lessons learned

Who Should Attend

Owners, operators, consultants, designers, engineering, procurement & construction companies, government policy and regulatory staff, young engineers and project developers involved with; gas turbine cogeneration, district heating & cooling and combined cycle systems, and waste heat recovery applications.

Earn 7 Professional Development Hours (PDH’s) and receive a certificate of completion!

Instructor Bios

Rakesh Bhargava, Ph. D.

Dr. Bhargava is Founder and President of Innovative Turbomachinery Technologies Corp. His specializations include applications of gas turbines and other rotating and reciprocating machines used in the off-shore, refinery, power generation, chemical, and pipeline industries. His more than 35 years of experience encompasses design reviews of process machinery and packaged equipment, inspection of turbomachinery component repairs, field problems resolution, failure analysis, development of customized training courses on rotating machinery, technical expertise in commercial disputes involving rotating machines and the global energy market analysis. He has given numerous lectures and short courses on gas turbine related topics and energy market around the world. He is the author of the world’s first “Technical Dictionary on the Gas Turbine Technology” which was released in 2017. He is a Fellow and Associate Fellow of ASME and AIAA, respectively, Associate Editor of the ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, and the past Chair of ASME/IGTI Industrial & Cogeneration and Oil & Gas Applications Committees.

Cyrus Meher-Homji, P.E.

Cyrus Meher-Homji is an Engineering Fellow and Technology Manager at Bechtel Corporation. He works as a turbomachinery advisor for the LNG Technology Group on ongoing LNG projects and studies. His thirty four years of industrial experience covers gas turbine and compressor engineering, design and troubleshooting. His areas of interest include condition monitoring, aerothermal analysis and gas turbine and compressor applications in LNG liquefaction. Cyrus is a registered Professional Engineer in the State of Texas, a Fellow of ASME and is active on several committees of ASME’s International Gas Turbine Institute. He serves on the Texas A&M University Turbomachinery Symposium Advisory Committee. Cyrus has a Master’s Degree in Engineering from Texas A&M University and an MBA from the University of Houston.

Manfred Klein

Manfred Klein is principal consultant with MA Klein & Assoc. He is recently retired with 33 years in the Canadian government, most recently as Coordinator, Energy and Environment at the Gas Turbine Labs of the National Research Council. Prior to this, he spent eleven years at the National Energy Board and 16 years with Environment Canada, involved in gas pipelines and industrial energy-related solutions to air pollution and greenhouse gases. There Manfred developed the National Emission Guidelines for Gas Turbines with energy-output based environmental standards, emission measurement practices and taxation incentives for industrial cogen and district energy. He has been involved extensively in training functions with governments, universities and with various industry organizations: Canadian Industrial Gas Turbine Applications Committee, Canadian Gas Association and the Int'l Gas Turbine Institute (former Chair, Environment & Regulatory Affairs). Manfred has Bachelor degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1980 from Carleton University in Ottawa.

Steve Ingistov, P.E.

Steve Ingistov is Principal Engineer in a 420 MW Watson Cogeneration Facility situated inside Los Angeles Refinery in Carson, CA. His main responsibilities include maintaining reliability and availability of the main gas and steam turbines, other plant auxiliary equipment and striving continuously to improve their efficiencies. Steve’s innovative engineering contributions have resulted in 12 US Patents geared to minimize parasitic losses associated with gas turbines. Steve is a registered Professional Engineer in the State of California, ASME Fellow, and past Chair of the IGTI Industrial & Cogeneration Committee. For his outstanding contributions to the Watson Cogeneration Facility, he has been recognized with 2000 Refinery Manager Award for Innovation and 2002 Helios Innovation Award. Steve received Master Degree in Mechanical engineering with specialization in the area of Turbomachinery from Marymount University in Los Angeles, CA. Steve has written numerous technical papers in the areas of operations, maintenance and power enhancement of cogeneration system.

Supercritical CO2 Cycle and Turbomachinery Design and Analysis

8:00am – 12:00pm

Interest in supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) in closed loop power cycles has significantly increased in recent years. These cycles benefit from the unique properties of CO2 near the critical point but these properties also pose unique challenges for turbomachinery design. Two of the most important issues in sCO2 turbomachinery are the rapid variation of the thermodynamic properties and the potential for two-phase flow phenomena. While none these issues precludes the development of effective turbomachinery designs for sCO2, they greatly complicate the modeling and prediction process, since many modeling assumptions that may be perfectly reasonable for conventional designs no longer apply.

This course seeks to educate the engineer on the basics of sCO2 design. We will identify the basic issues, tradeoffs, and limitations involved in laying out cycles; including the benefits of starting with higher power prototype sCO2 systems rather than developing prototype systems below 500kWe. The most suitable applications of sCO2 cycles will be discussed; from nuclear energy source to exhaust gas, waste heat recovery. Basic aerodynamic and structural design issues unique to sCO2 will be covered along with special concerns for design and analysis of turbomachinery components.

Key Benefits to Participants

  • An understanding of the benefits and challenges of sCO2 power cycles
  • Introduction to the modeling and numerical methods required for sCO2 design
  • Awareness of the special design consideration for sCO2 compressors and turbines
  • Overview of advanced topics that bring special risks to sCO2 design

Note: Participants are expected to have basic understanding of thermodynamics and fluid dynamic principles. Some prior knowledge of turbomachinery design principles is helpful but not essential.

Who Should Attend

Engineers involved in the design of compressors and turbines for application in supercritical CO2 cycles

Workshop Schedule and Content

Section 1 Supercritical CO2 Cycles

  • Brayton cycle
  • Recompression cycle
  • Allam cycle
  • Applications

Section 2 Thermodynamic and Fluid Modeling Concerns

  • Thermodynamic modeling options
  • Accuracy and computational efficiency
  • Component tradeoffs
  • Basic sizing

Section 3 Compressor and Turbine Design for sCO2

  • Overview of basic design theory for compressors and turbines
  • Special treatment for sCO2 in the design process
  • Materials
  • Mechanical design and seals required for sCO2

Section 4 Advanced Topics

  • Nucleation and cavitation in sCO2 machines
  • Turbulence modeling considerations
  • Impacts of non-linear fluid dynamic thermodynamic effects in the design
  • General discussion

Earn 4 Professional Development Hours (PDH’s) and receive a certificate of completion.


Mark Anderson, M.S.

Mark Anderson has a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Northeastern University and a M.A. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His experience includes research in the area of hypersonic propulsion for X-30 and NASA’s Atmospheric Effect of Aviation Programs. He was Vice President of Concepts NREC Software Development for 7 years leading a group developing advanced engineering software for turbomachinery design and analysis. Currently, he is Chief Technology Officer at Concepts NREC. He has authored or co-authored over 25 papers on turbomachinery, CFD, and environmental modeling. Mr. Anderson graduated from Northeastern University ME Class of 1985 with BS in ME. Graduated from MIT in 1987 with Masters in Mech. Engineering.

Francis Di Bella, P.E., M.S.

Worked at Thermo Electron Corp.s’ subsidiary: Tecogen, Inc. on a variety of energy related projects for both private companies and D.O.E. projects. Such projects ranged from the development of steam atmosphere, industrial dryers to Mechanical Vapor Recompression systems to Organic Rankine Cycle waste heat recovery systems. In general, the engineering team at Tecogen, Inc. was focused on innovative ways of improving the energy efficiency of mechanical systems. In 2000 Frank left Industry to teach full time at NU’s Engineering Technology Dept. receiving the University-wide Teaching Award in 2002 and becoming the Director of ET in 2005. Joined current employer Concepts NREC in 2008 where he continues the development of energy related systems; ranging from water wave energy systems to supercritical CO2 power generation and CO2 sequestration to a variety of waste heat recovery systems and continues to teach a variety of engineering courses. Mr. Di Bella graduated from Northeastern University ME Class of 1974 with BS in ME. Graduated from RPI in 1975 with Masters in Mechanical Engineering.

Gas Turbine Aerothermodynamics and Performance Calculations

8:00am – 6:30pm

This interactive workshop provides review and reinforcement of relevant thermodynamic and aerodynamic concepts as applied to gas turbine engines, and introduces performance calculation methods of both aircraft engine and power generation gas turbines. The workshop emphasizes fundamentals which will be helpful for the practicing engineer but is not designed to review industrial practices which are usually proprietary. The acquired knowledge, including the review of illustrative examples, will enhance the participants' ability to excel in various assignments in gas turbine design, development, education, and application. The workshop material has been evaluated by the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering of North Carolina State University.

The workshop includes: a review of the relevant thermodynamics and compressible flow; introduction to cycle analysis; propulsive, thermal, and overall efficiencies; elements of turbomachinery aero design; familiarization with combustor characteristics; integration of component performances to obtain overall engine performance with illustrative examples of design point and off-design calculations; multivariable solver; and various cycles used for power generation.

After completing the course the participants should be able to apply aerothermodynamic concepts to the analysis of gas turbine engines; analyze turbomachinery velocity diagrams and relate those to thermodynamic parameters; appreciate the usefulness of the degree of reaction and the radial equilibrium equation; comprehend the discipline of operability and combustor characteristics; analyze cycle analysis problems on integrating the component performances to get the overall engine performance. The illustrative examples on the integration of the component performances to obtain the overall performance will facilitate comprehension of compressor/turbine matching; accounting for turbine cooling flows; the method of sizing critical flow path areas at the design point; method of satisfying conservation laws to achieve cycle balance at off-design; technique of the multivariable solver used in cycle models; making models match test data; and the analysis of various engine cycles in the power generation field including hybrid cycles.

Who Should Attend

Early Career or Experienced Engineers in Turbomachinery and Gas Turbine Engine Design, Development, Application, and Education.

Special Notation: A laptop is recommended for individual reviewing of the materials, on a flash drive, in class.

Earn 8 Professional Development Hours (PDH's) and receive a certificate of completion!


Syed Khalid, President, Gas Turbine Systems Solutions, LLC

Syed J. Khalid has an MSME (Purdue) and an ME (Aerospace, North Carolina State University). He has extensive experience in performance, controls, operability, and installation aerodynamics at Pratt & Whitney, GE, Roll-Royce, Lockheed Martin, and Boeing. He is inventor/co-inventor of 20 issued patents and 3 pending patents. He has received numerous industry and professional society awards. He is author of 14 technical papers. He is an elected member of Phi Kappa Phi.