Heat Transfer

Heat Transfer

deals with exchanges of thermal energy between physical systems. Differences in temperature are the drivers and heat flows to the low-temperature region. Heat transfer modes include conduction (diffusion at the microscopic level), convection (via flowing fluids or gases), radiation / electromagnetic, and phase-change transfers such as boiling and condensation. All may occur in some systems at the same time, e.g. earth’s atmosphere. Heat transfer is basic to energy conservation.