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Pipe Sizing, Pipe Wall Stresses and Water Hammer (Virtual Classroom)

Understand the relationship between pipe wall stresses and the changes in fluid pressure and velocity to predict and prevent pipe wall failure.

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Pipe Sizing, Pipe Wall Stresses and Water Hammer (Virtual Classroom)
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  • Mar 07-17th, 2022

    30

    List $1495
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Enroll now to save 40%

$2,485 $1,495

Course Schedule: This course is offered over the following eight-day sessions, commencing at 9:30 AM and ending at 1:30 PM Eastern, each day, with breaks scheduled throughout:

  • October 4 - 7 and 11 - 14, 2021
  • March 7 - 10 and 14 - 17, 2022

Pipelines move fluids by pumps under steady state conditions. However, when the flow becomes unsteady – for example, when a downstream valve in a pipeline is closed rapidly – the result can be catastrophic. Changes in the flow direction can create pressure surges producing stress in the pipe wall and a loud banging noise called, water hammer.

It is important to understand the relationship between the pipe wall stresses and the changes in fluid pressure and velocity to predict a pipe wall failure. This course furnishes students with the equations and calculations necessary to solve these problems. It also provides a review of fluid mechanics: fluid properties, equations for steady and for unsteady flows, flow in a pipeline, friction factor, hydraulic and energy gradient lines, and axial and hoop stress calculations in a pipe wall. Once this background is provided, the unsteady flows can be modeled without undue difficulty. 

Today, the solutions may be obtained rather quickly using a spreadsheet. Spreadsheet results allow the user to define how quickly a valve is closed, for example, and obtain results immediately. The user may change pipe diameter, friction factor, pipe length, etc., and immediately determine the effects on pressure and on flow rate. Other unsteady flows can also be described by the same equation. In fact, the water hammer problem can be extended to model the unsteady flow of other fluids. (Oils, for example, are especially important.)

The course includes exercises to provide participants the opportunity to solve unsteady flow problems with spreadsheets using the proper equations and calculations.

Special Requirements
Attendees should have a calculator, “a French” or Flex curve, and a divider or compass.

Course Materials
Learners are furnished with downloadable spreadsheets and a PDF version of the course presentation.

You Will Learn To

  • Model steady flow fundamentals in a pipeline
  • Describe and model the unsteady flow called water hammer
  • Explain how water hammer results in excessive pipe wall stresses
  • Predict when such stresses exceed the yield stress of the pipe material
  • Avoid pipeline design and operating conditions that may lead to water hammer

Who Should Attend
The class is designed for practicing engineers in the power and process piping areas, including those in power companies, utility companies, valve and pipe manufacturers, oil industries. 

This ASME Virtual Classroom course is held live with an instructor on our online learning platform.  Certificate of completion will be issued to registrants who successfully attend and complete the course. 

Buying for a team? Get ASME Corporate Training.

Set up a customized session of this course for your workforce. Contact learningsolutions@asme.org to learn more about group rates.

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Course Outline

Topics Covered

Review of Dimensions & Unit Systems

  • SI; British Gravitational; Engineering or US or Imperial System
  • Conventional unit systems
  • Conversions
  • Measurement Scales
  • Miscellaneous Measurements

 Fluid Properties

  • Introduction
  • Density, Specific Gravity, Specific Weight
  • Viscosity
  • Kinematic Viscosity
  • Compressibility Factor
  • Pressure
  • Measurement of Viscosity
  • Measurement of Pressure
  • Manometry 

Equations of Fluid Mechanics (Steady Flow)

  • Continuity Equation
  • Momentum Equation
  • Energy Equation
  • Bernoulli Equation
  • Miscellaneous Problems

 Piping Systems I

  • Pipe Specifications & Attachment Methods
  • Water Tubing Specifications & Attachment Methods
  • Laminar Flow of a Newtonian Fluid in a Circular Duct
  • Turbulent Flow in a Circular Duct
  • Curve Fit Equations for the Moody Diagram
  • Solution Methods
  • Noncircular Ducts: Rectangular Ducts, Annular Ducts

Piping Systems II

  • Minor Losses Using K Factors
  • Minor Losses Using Equivalent Length
  • Hydraulic Gradient Line
  • Energy Gradient Line

 Equations of Fluid Mechanics (Unsteady Flow)

  • Continuity Equation
  • Momentum Equation
  • Energy Equation
  • Bernoulli Equation
  • Miscellaneous Problems

 Introduction to Unsteady Flows: Sampling of Problems

  • Draining Tank Problems (using velocity)
  • Draining Tank Problems (alternative formulation)
  • Discharge of Flow With Varying Head

Unsteady Startup of Flow in a Pipeline

  • Description, Analysis, and Equations
  • Constant Friction Factor Method
  • Numerical Method
  • Comparison of Solution Methods
  • Polynomial Equation

 Stresses in Pressure Vessels

  • Poisson’s Ratio
  • Dilation of Pressure Vessels
  • Cylindrical Vessel Under Internal Pressure
  • Stresses in Thin Walled Pressure Vessels
  • Stresses in Thick Walled Pressure Vessels
  • Lamé Thick Cylinder Wall Equations
  • Deformation of a Thick Walled Cylinder

 Water Hammer I

  • Description of the Problem
  • Mathematical Model
  • Fluid Properties Needed for the Model
  • Bulk Modulus
  • Conservation of Mass
  • Conservation of Momentum
  • Wave Speed
  • Wall Stresses

 Water Hammer II

  • Sample Calculations
  • Thin and Thick Wall Models
  • Comparison of Solutions
  • Air Entrainment

Differential Equations for Transient Conditions

  • Unsteady Flow in a Pipeline
  • Spreadsheet Solution of the Equations
  • Investigation of Various Effects on pipe stresses

Valve Closure Equation Models

  • Definitions
  • Instantaneous Closure
  • Sudden Closure
  • Rapid Closure
  • Slow Closure
  • Spreadsheet Solutions

 Other Unsteady Problems

  • Oscillating Positive Displacement Pump
  • Undamped Free Vibration
  • Energy Method
  • Damped Free Vibration
  • Critical Damping
  • Oscillating Liquid in a U-tube

 Exercises

The coursework includes many worked sample problems, and the participants are required to solve similar problems.

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About the Instructor

Dr. William S. Janna is a Professor of Mechanical Engineer at the University of Memphis.  He earned his BS, MS, and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Toledo.  He has taught at the University of Memphis for 25 years.  Previously, Dr. Janna worked at the University of New Orleans for 11 years; serving four years as Chair of the Mechanical Engineering Department.
 
Dr. Janna has written three textbooks: Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Engineering Heat Transfer, and Design of Fluid Thermal Systems.  He has been a contributing editor to several handbooks, and has written numerous research papers.  Dr. Janna serves as a textbook reviewer for Applied Mechanical Reviews, and has taught the Economics of Pipe Size Selection in the ASME Professional Development Program.

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